This rank is generally parallel to Professor. In addition to having the qualifications required of the Associate Research Scientist, appointees shall have established a national and, where appropriate, international reputation for outstanding scientific research. Appointees should provide tangible evidence of sound scholarly production in research, publications, professional achievements, or other distinguished and creative activity. Appointments are typically made as five-year contracts. Appointments for additional five-year terms can be renewed as early as the third year of any given five-year contract.